年齡相關性黃斑病變

Age-Related Maculopathy

老年性黃斑點病變是現時致盲的主要眼疾。由於年齡的增長,身體機能開始退化,早期黃斑區點出現一些小點,輕微影響視力(乾性黃斑點病變)。這些小點續漸變大,於後期可於黃斑點區域出現新生血管及血管滲漏(濕性黃斑點病變),因而嚴重影響視力。

眼睛的黃斑區域負責中心視力及觀看細微影像。當黃斑點病變出現時,液體及血液滲出導致中央視野及視力開始模糊、景物變形、線條扭曲,最後中央視野可完全失去。

由於病症初期(乾性)不易察覺或病者警覺性太低,以致病情惡化,甚至失明。

這種眼疾可先後影響雙眼。吸煙、長期暴曬或年齡在五十歲以上的人士,都是黃斑點病變的高危的一群。香港人飲食習慣日趨西化,也使黃斑點病人的有數量增加的趨勢。

老年性黃斑點退化是沒有有效方法預防。以往醫治方法通常是在發現黃斑區出現新生血管或血管滲漏時進行激光光凝或藥物注射治療,希望使新生血管停止生長或滲漏以減低出血等可能。

中醫眼科治療

中醫方面可於發病早期(乾性),利用中醫藥治療改善視力減輕視物不清所帶來生活不便或工作障礙;若已出血亦可加速出血重吸收,並減輕黃斑區疤痕形成而影響以後視力。

早於數百年前中醫眼科醫書已有類似記載,病名分別為”視瞻昏渺”及”暴盲”。當時因未有西醫診斷知識及技術,故只能以患者所描述症狀而判斷病症,但現在中醫眼科可將現代診斷技術融入於中醫眼科理論當中,在治療此病時可得知出血情況,如量、出血時間等,以便用藥更精準而達到更佳效果。

參閱「探索中醫眼科」書籍關於年齡相關性黃斑年病變內容

飲食事項

雖然有研究指高劑量的維他命C及E、胡蘿蔔素及鋅質等礦物質,可減低出現嚴重老年性黃斑點病變風險。過量進食維他命A、E及奧米加三脂肪酸,會妨礙血液凝固狀況。

 

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